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As of 2013, roughly 3,106 living and fossil termite species are recognised, categorized in 12 families. The infraorder Isoptera is split into the following clade and family groups, showing the subfamilies in their respective classification:26

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Termites are found on all continents except Antarctica. The diversity of termite species is reduced in North America and Europe (10 species known in Europe and 50 in North America), but is high in South America, where over 400 species have been known.34 Of the 3,000 termite species currently categorized, 1,000 are found in Africa, where mounds are really abundant in certain regions.

Within China, termite species are restricted to moderate tropical and subtropical habitats south of the Yangtze River.34 In Australia, all environmental groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 classified species.34.

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As a result of their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cold or cool habitats.36 There are three environmental groups of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous woods, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites reside in widely diverse areas.34 One species in the drywood category is the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which is an invasive species in Australia.37.

Termites are generally small, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (0.16 to 0.59 in) in length.34 The biggest of extant termites are the queens of those species Macrotermes bellicosus, measuring up to over 10 centimetres (4 in) in length.38 Another giant termite, the extinct Gyatermes styriensis, flourished in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3.0 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (0.98 in).39note 1.

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Most worker and soldier termites are blind as they do not have a set of eyes. However, some species, like Hodotermes mossambicus, haveCompound eyes that they utilize for orientation and to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.40 The alates (winged males and females) have eyes along with lateral ocelli.

Termite antennae have a number of functions such as the sensing of taste, touch, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three basic segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (usually shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel). The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a set of mandibles.

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Consistent with insects, the anatomy of the termite thorax consists of three segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax. Each segment contains a set of legs. On alates, the wings are located at the mesothorax and metathorax. Even the mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates. .

Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen with 2 plates, the tergites and the sternites. The official site tenth abdominal segment has a set of short cerci.45 There are ten tergites, of which nine are broad and one is elongated. The reproductive organs are similar to those in cockroaches but are somewhat more simplified. By way of instance, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the semen is either immotile or aflagellate.

Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females have an ovipositor, a characteristic strikingly like that in female cockroaches.48.

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The non-reproductive castes of termites are wingless and rely solely on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only for a short amount of time, so they also rely on their legs. The appearance of the legs is comparable in each and every caste, but the soldiers have larger and heavier legs.

The number of tibial spurs on an individual's leg fluctuates. Some species of termite have an arolium, located between the claws, which can be present in species that scale on smooth surfaces but is absent in most termites.49.

Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equal length.2 the majority of the time, the alates useful source are poor flyers; their technique would be to launch themselves in the air and fly in a random direction. Studies show that in comparison to larger termites, smaller vases cannot fly long distances. When a termite is in flight, its wings remain in a right angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to your own my company body.51.

Caste method of termites A King B Queen C Secondary queen D Tertiary queen E Infection F Worker

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Worker termites undertake the maximum labor within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.53 Workers are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in meals and are thus the most likely caste to be found in infested timber. The process of worker termites feeding other nestmates is popularly known as trophallaxis.

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